- Plagiarism is the misrepresentation of another's work, whether ideas, words, or creative works, published or unpublished, as one's own.
- The use of someone else's work must be explicitly acknowledged.
- Examples of plagiarism include:
- Quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing text without proper acknowledgement
- Paraphrasing too closely (e.g., changing only a few words or simply rearranging the text)
- Downloading all or part of a paper, journal article, or book from the Web or a library database and presenting it as one's own work
- Plagiarism and other acts of academic dishonesty, including cheating, tampering, and falsification, are subject to academic discipline.
- A more detailed list of acts of academic dishonesty can be found in Section 3.8 of the Academic Calendar.
- Always acknowledge the words or ideas of someone else that you use in your own work.
- Be aware of the required citation style.
- Use quotation marks around any direct quotes, and cite the source.
- When paraphrasing someone else's ideas, cite the source.
- Information such as dates and facts that are considered common knowledge do not have to be cited.
- If you are unsure, ask for assistance from your professor, the Reference Librarians, or the Writing Centre.
How Your Professor Can Help
- Your professor will be able to tell you what citation style you should use for the course, e.g. MLA, APA.
- Your professor may have handouts or a list of appropriate websites to assist you in essay writing and proper use of citations.
- Make an appointment with your professor if you need clarification about the topic or what is expected. It is better to check in advance than to guess.
How the Library Can Help
- Librarians can assist students in developing critical research skills as well as skills used in evaluating internet and other resources.
- Librarians can also assist students in using style manuals and understanding how to cite sources. Writing and Citing provides examples from a number of commonly used citation styles.
- The library also provides access to the RefWorks software, which can be used to create personal files of citations and bibliographies.
- Contact your Liaison Librarian to make an appointment for a hands-on RefWorks tutorial or to discuss plagiarism in general.
How the Writing Centre Can Help
- The Writing Centre has a direct role in teaching students how to recognize and avoid plagiarism.
- Instructors assist students in developing critical thinking, writing, and self-editing skills, as well as strategies to avoid plagiarism.
- The Writing Centre provides a plagiarism resource page for students.
- The Writing Centre offers classroom programs and one-on-one appointments.
University Policies on Plagiarism
- For definitions, examples and official procedures, see the StFX University's Academic Integrity Policies and Procedures:
You Quote It, You Note It - Acadia University interactive tutorial
Avoiding Plagiarism from Purdue University
Dalhousie University Plagiarism and Academic Honesty Student Resources page has sections on how to cite, how to paraphrase and an online tutorial covering basic research skills including researching ethically and citing sources.