300 Level

302 - Evolution
Life on our planet, in all its wonderful diversity, has evolved to be this way. This course will introduce the student to the core concepts of Darwinian natural selection, the process of speciation, methods of phylogenetic construction, the relationship between phylogenetics and taxonomy, analysis of evolutionary patterns, the history of life on Earth, and selected topics including human evolution and social behaviour. Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 204 or permission of the instructor. Three credits and tutorial.

304 - Vertebrate Physiology
This course uses an integrative approach to study the function of organ systems, including neural, cardiovascular, muscular, respiratory, renal, reproductive and endocrine. Examples of how vertebrates, including humans, respond to different demands imposed by their environment and activities will be discussed. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 304 or BIOL 251/252. Prerequisite: BIOL 201. Three credits and lab.

307 - Field Biology
Provides practical experience in the observation, collection, identification and quantification of organisms in nature. Held for two weeks in the spring session, the course emphasizes field ecology, dealing with some or all of the following groups of organisms: birds, small mammals, fish, plants, marine algae, marine invertebrates and insects. Prerequisite: BIOL 203. Three credits and lab.

308 - Biology of Populations (not offered 2018-2019)
This course covers the principles of plant and animal population dynamics. The
great diversity in growth, survival, reproduction, and dispersal patterns in aquatic
and terrestrial populations is examined. Contents include theory, evidence from
experimental studies and the interaction between the environment and populations.
Prerequisite: BIOL 203 or permission of the instructor. Three credits.

311 - Coastal Marine Ecology
An introduction to coastal marine habitats and the factors that influence the population and community structure of primary producers and consumers. The course includes an overview of marine ecological theory, field work, and laboratory observations. focusing on Nova Scotia shores. Prerequisite: BIOL 203. Three credits, lab and research project.

315 - Introductory Microbiology
Provides a broad perspective on the microbial world and its role in the biosphere. The diversity, morphology and physiology of prokaryotic microorganisms will be discussed. Laboratories stress basic microbiological techniques including microscopic examination, isolation from natural environments, enumeration and examination of physiology. Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 204; CHEM 220, or CHEM 225 and 255. Open to human kinetics students upon completion of CHEM 220, or CHEM 225 and 255. Three credits and lab.

317 - Molecular Biology 
An introduction to the analysis of peptides and nucleic acids using standard molecular methodology. Topics include electrophoretic techniques; manipulation of DNA, the introduction of foreign DNA into host bacterial cells and the use of gene cloning, gene amplification, and DNA sequencing. In labs students will apply these methods to interpret gels and to generate genetically modified bacteria. Prerequisites: BIOL 204, 315. Three credits and lab.

320 - Biology of Cancer
An introduction to the problem of cancer, emphasizing the cellular and molecular biology of carcinogenesis in humans. The multi-causal, multi-step nature of the process will be highlighted, including the role of viruses, oncogenes, carcinogens and ionizing radiations. Prerequisite: BIOL 204. Three credits and lab.

331 - Statistical Methods
Cross-listed as STAT 331; see STAT 331. Three credits and a one-hour lab.

335 - Developmental Biology 
The course provides an introduction to the means by which animals replicate themselves. Students will be introduced to experimental methods, intercellular communication, the diversity of different ways that animals develop and the role of gene regulation therein. Laboratories will highlight topics covered in lecture and introduce students to some experimental techniques. Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 204. Three credits and lab. Not offered 2016-2017; next offered 2017-2018.

342 - Invertebrate Zoology (Not offered 2018-2019)
A comparative study of invertebrate animals and their adaptations, including their morphology, behaviour, physiology, ecology and evolution. Students will learn the remarkable diversity of both form and function in these animals. At the same time, students will refine their powers of observation, improve their ability to ask and answer critical questions about organisms, and design experiments that will lead to further insight into invertebrate zoology. Prerequisite: BIOL 201. Three credits and lab.Next offered 2019-2020.

343 - Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates
A comparative study of the anatomy and evolution of chordate animals with emphasis on the vertebrates, including humans. In the laboratory, students will study the anatomy of representative vertebrates and will complete a project focusing on local wildlife. Prerequisite: BIOL 201. Three credits and lab.

345 - Communities and Ecosystems
An outline of the essential theory of community and ecosystem ecology, including climate drivers, mineral cycles, energy flow and community structure. The concepts of succession, food webs and biodiversity are illustrated with comparative examples drawn from a variety of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 202, 203. Three credits.

360 - Global Change Biology 
This course analyzes major anthropogenic phenomena that are currently affecting natural systems at a global scale. Topics include global warming, ocean acidification, species invasions, habitat fragmentation, and overfishing, focusing on the effects of such processes on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Successful mitigation and conservation strategies are evaluated. Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 202, 203. Three credits.

374 - Human Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology is the study of how damage to the brain causes changes in thoughts and behaviours. Cognitive changes associated with specific diseases/ conditions will be the focus of the course (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, etc.). Examples of cognitive and behavioural symptoms will be presented via videos, audio recordings, and performance on neuropsychological tests. The assessment of cognitive processes will be introduced and relevant structural and functional neuroanatomy will be reviewed. Cross-listed as PSYC 373. Prerequisite: 12 credits PSYC; PSYC 230 recommended but not required. Three credits.

381 - Selected Topics: Insect Biology
 Insects represent over half of the planet’s biological diversity. This course provides a comprehensive introduction to this extraordinary diversity, and explores key features of insect structure, function, behaviour, ecology, and classification, integrating appropriate molecular studies throughout. A comparative and evolutionary approach is employed to examine the various adaptations that have allowed insects to become the most successful group of animals on the planet. The numerous ways in which insects impact human life and health will be discussed. Three lecture hours per week. One term. Prerequisite Bio 201.

391 - Junior Seminar
This course will assist students in choosing a career, gaining admission to graduate or professional school and help honours students choose a supervisor and prepare for their honours thesis work. Required for all biology advanced major and honours students in their third year. No credit.

395 - Cell Biology
An introduction to the eukaryotic cell, including relationships between biochemical mechanisms and organelle functions, and techniques used to study cell function. Prerequisites: BIOL 201, 204; CHEM 220 or 255. Three credits and lab.

398 - ST: Cardiovascular System (not offered 2018-2019)
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Canada, but how much do you know about your heart? This course surveys a wide range of topics regarding the human cardiovascular system including: normal anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system, embryonic development of the heart and blood vessels, congenital heart defects, genetic-related heart diseases, lifestyle-related cardiovascular diseases, medical imaging of the cardiovascular system, medical and dietary interventions in cardiovascular diseases.